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英语专业毕业论文范文
作者: 发布时间:2006-05-07 来源:应用文写作网

Conclusion
          Through the above discussion, we can conclude that Hester Prynne is resurrected by her pious atonement. The process can be found clearly in the changes of the meaning of the scarlet letter “A”. At the beginning the letter “A”, worn on Hester's bosom is a symbol of her adultery against Roger Chillingworth. This is the puritan way of treating her as a criminal, for the crime of adultery. The puritan treatment continues, because as Hester walkes through the streets, she will be looked down upon as if she is some sort of demon from heLetter appeared in 1950s, scholars and readers in this country have shown an ever-increasing interest in his works.
Hawthorne was born on the fourth of July, 1804 in Salem, Massachusetts. Some of his ancestors were big shots in seventeenth-century New England, which was under the control of Puritanism. One of them was a colonial magistrate, notorious for his participation in the persecution of Quakers, and another was a judge at the Salem Witchcraft Trail in 1692. Gradually, the family fortune declined. Hawthorne's father was a sea captain, who died in an accident and left his mother and him behind to struggle to live for themselves. Young Hawthorne was quite aware of the misdeeds of his Puritan ancestors, and this awareness made him believe that evil was at the core of human life. To some extent, Hawthorne wrote some of his books, such as The Scarlet Letter and The House of the Seven Gambles to try to make up for the sin of his ancestors.
Hawthorne's writing skills can be concluded as follows:
Firstly, all his life, Hawthorne seems to be indulged in his sense of sin and evil in life. Reading his books, one cannot but be overwhelmed by the black vision which these books reveal. Evil exists in the human heart all the time. For instance, in the short story, “ Earth's Holocaust,” we can find that, though all symbols of tradition and the past have been burned in the bonfire of the life of the New World, the source of evil---the human heart, remains intact. Everyone possesses some evil secret as tales like “ Young Goodman Brown” set out to prove. Everyone tries to cover up its innermost evil in the way the minister Dimmesdale in The Scarlet Letter tries to pretend how pure and pious he is. Evil seems to be man's birthmark. This point of view is just as what The Bible describes people's original sin.
Secondly, to Hawthorne, sin will surely get punished, one way or another. As a matter of fact, he was said to be always troubled by the thought that the decline of his family's fortune had something to do with the sins of his Puritan ancestors. Hawthorne deeply believes that “the wrong-doing of one generation lives into the successive ones”(The House of the Seven Gambles). It is also interesting to note that Hawthorne believes that evil educates. What Hawthorne seems to prove is that man can get experience from the crime which brings about the disaster.
In short, to tell the truth and yet not to offend, that is all Hawthorne tries to achieve in his works.


Chapter Tw   Depravity---the Origin of the Scarlet Letter
The story begins in seventeenth-century Boston, which is under Puritan command. A young woman, named Hester Prynne, is sent ahead to America by her husband---an old and ugly scholar. However, for many years, hehimself doesn't arrive. Obviously, it is possible that he has been lost in the sea. While waiting for her husband, Hester and a young local minister called Arthur Dimmesdale fall in love with each other. They commit adultery secretly. Because of Hester's Pregnancy, the secret is finally discovered.
According to The Bible, everyone is sinful. That is the opinion of the original sin: when God creates the world, He first creates a man called Adam and then a woman called Eve. They live happily in the Garden of Eden. God tells them that they can eat every kind of fruit in the garden except those on the tree of knowledge of good and evil. Instigated by the serpent, the two can not control their curiosity and violates God's order and eat the fruits from that particular tree. That enrages God. From that time on, they become sinful and are expelled from the Garden of Eden. However, sin doesn't stop. It is passed from generation to generation by reproduction of Adam and Eve. All successive generations are their descendants and therefore inherit their sin. So at the time one is born, he/she bears evil and has the root of committing crime.
According to the principle of the original sin, Hester Prynne is not an exception. She is also the offspring of Adam and Eve. The inside of her flows their bloods and she of course inherits their original sin. Thus she is a sinner from the beginning of her life.
Are there any other standards to judge whether a person is sinful?The answer is positive. The criterion should not be the common custom. Instead, it should be the God's standard. Because according to the common custom, it is very difficult to judge sometimes. Everybody is a mixture of virtue and evil and the emphasis of everyone's selfish desire is quite different. Some cravenly fear death, some cling to woman's charms, some seek only profits and some hanker after reputation. Some are frank and honest and others sly and cunning. Therefore it is hard to decide who is right and who is wrong. Furthermore, the common custom is relative and changing. For example, twenty years ago, to commit adultery was enough to ruin a person's fame. However, in today's society, cohabitation before marriage is universal. Besides, although some people display higher moral standards than others, they still can't get rid of selfishness and avoid committing crime. If we adopts the criterion of the common custom, although we know that we are not innocent, we will comfort ourselves that we may be worse than some people, but still better than others.
Thus we can only use God's criteria to decide whether or not a person is sinful. God's criteria are The Ten Commandments and The Seven Deadly Sins.
The Ten Commandments:
I am the LORD your God, who brought you out of Egypt, out ofmake for yourself an idol in the form of anything in heaven above or on the earth beneath or in the waters below.
You shall not bow down to them or worship them; for I, the LORD your God, am a jealous God, punishing the children for the sin of the fathers to the third and fourth generation of those who hate me, but showing love to a thousand generations of those who love me and keep my commandments.
You shall not misuse the name of the LORD your God, for the LORD will not hold anyone guiltless who misuses his name.
Remember the Sabbath day by keeping it holy.

Six days you shall labour and do all your work, but the seventh day is a Sabbath to the LORD your God. On it you shall not do any work, neither you, nor your son or daughter, nor your manservant or maidservant, nor your animals, nor the alien within your gates.

For in six days the LORD made the heavens and the earth, the sea, and all that is in them, but he rested on the seventh day. Therefore the LORD blessed the Sabbath day and made it holy.
Honour your father and your mother, so that you may live long in the land the LORD your God is giving you.
You shall not murder.
You shall not commit adultery.
You shall not steal.
You shall not give false testimony against your neighbour.
You shall not covet your neighbour's house. You shall not covet your neighbour's wife, or his manservant or maidservant, his ox or donkey, or anything that belongs to your neighbour.
(Exodus2,14)
The Seven Deadly Sins: a)Pride; b)Lechery; c)Envy; d)Wrath; e)Sloth; f)Glutton
Obviously, according to these criteria, Hester Prynne is quite sinful. She is sinful because she disobeys God by committing adultery. When Chillingworth --- Hester Prynne's husband sent her to the New World, although there was no love at all between the couple, she shouldn't forget that she had already got married. She had a husband, who was just missing at that time. However, she could not control her vicious desire and had a love affair with the minister --- Dimmesdale. That's not forgivable according to Catholicism. That's insult to God. That's betrayal! In such a situation, Hester Prynne forgot God's instruction and was completely degenerated. She is a blaspheme to God.
So from the very day of her crime, Hester Prynne has to bear all the sufferings that follow. Every sin must be punished. All our behaviors and deeds can't pass away easily. Our wrong-doings are hateful in that they not only deprave ourselves, but also offense others and especially God. Hester's behavior is disgraceful and she is looked down upon by others. Furthermore, her adultery affronts God. God is just and fair. God will not forgive your fault carFirstly, sin fouls people; sin is not only a flaw, but also a contamination. Sin to soul is the same as rust to gold. It is just like a blemish on a beautiful thing. The Bible compares sin with “plague”(1King, 8, 38). Sin fouls God's image and stain the pure of soul. It makes God “grew weary of” the sinners (Zechariah,8,11); and when “you will remember your conduct and all the actions by which you have defiled yourselves, and you will loathe yourselves for all the evil you have done”(Ezekiel,20,43). Apostle Paul said in2 Corinthian, 7, 1 that “everything … contaminates body and spirit”.
Secondly, Sin makes God worry. “do not grieve the Holy Spirit of God”(Ephesians, 4, 30). Sin is deliberately an affliction to God. God doesn't like sin because sin makes God be insulted. So to worry God is a big crime.
Thirdly, sin is contrary to God. A sinner trends on God's principle and violates God's decree.
Fourthly, sin brings evil. Sin is like the Trojan horse (The Greeks sieged Troy for many years without result. One day, they got an idea. They pretended to retreat, leaving a huge wooden horse, in which a number of Greek heroes had hidden themselves. The Trojans, who were too happy to reflect on the situation, brought the horse inside the city as a war trophy. In the following night, the Greeks came out and attacked the unsuspecting and celebrating Trojans, and finally conquered Troy), which has a common outlook and terrible things inside.
Lastly, sinners who don't repent will die out. Unrepentant sin brings about “ the second death”(Revelation 20,14)
(《Xi Tong Shen Xue》
Chapter Three:   Hester Prynne's Resurrection --- From Suffering and Redemption to Salvation
Sins must be punished.Siners must be suffering. It is a startling fact that the whole life time of every human being includes a certain amount of suffering. All people suffer: rich or poor, smart or dumb, Christian or non-Christian. Suffering of some kind is part of God's plan for everyone. Suffering can be defined as the lack of one or more of the things that constitute the perfect life. As we know, there are many things of this kind. Things related to one's personal life, family life, social life, community life and national life; things like loved ones, friends, money, health, marriage, ***, job, etc. And when you lose one of these things that you enjoy, the result is suffering.
Suffering occurs by several means in human life, including the following:  
l         Suffering of loss of health --- physical pain, fever, paralysis, deaf, blindness, mute, etc.>l         Suffering of the lack of daily necessities --- food, clothing, shelter, etc.
l         Suffering from the nature --- floods, earthquakes, hurricanes, tornados, storms, as well as freezing or hot weather, volcanoes and blizzards.
l         Suffering from mental agony --- worry, sorrow, fear, anguish, jealousy, etc.
l         Suffering of being treated unfairly by law, regulation, standard or by other people.
        Everyone in this world is and must be suffering. You can find this opinion in The Imitation of Christ: "Wherever you are, wherever you go, you are miserable unless you turn to God. So why be dismayed when things do not happen as you wish and desire? Is there anyone who has anything as he wishes? No--- neither I, nor you, nor any man on earth. There is no one in the world, be he Pope or king, who dosen't suffer trial or anguish."(Chapter 22: Thoughts on the Misery of Man). But why all of us must be suffering? The reason is the original sin and crimes that people commit. And only through suffering can one get merit and learn experience.
          However, suffering doesn't prove that God is cruel. “He is good; his love endures for ever”(2 Chronicles,5:13) God makes people suffer not because He wants to see misfortune. Instead, suffering is God charity. We have stated before that sin is terrible. In fact, sufferings are brought about by sins, not God. Sufferings are to prove sin's evil nature, make people realize it and avoid committing sins. So suffering is just a means by God to educate people. It means that God doesn't give up anybody, even the sinner. God makes sinners suffer to impress them deeply and also warn others the blackness of sins. Therefore, the purpose of suffering is to save the sinners. “Blessed is the man whom God corrects; so do not despise the discipline of the Almighty. For he wounds, but he also binds up; he injures, but his hands also heal.”(Job 5:17-18)
      Hester Prynne suffers not only because of mankind's original sin, but also, and more decided by her adultery with Dimmesdale. Adultery is an offense towards God so she must be punished severely. In fact, Hester's life is full of misery after the exposure of her crime. The first time Hester Prynne walks out of the prison with her baby, she is punished to be set in the market-place where "stern-browed men" and "unkindly-visaged women" and "a crowd of eager and curious schoolboys" may "have a fair sight of her brave apparel." This kind of public exposure isn't considered sympathetic in local people's eyes. Instead, it is "a blessing on the rightous colony of the Massachusettes, where iniquity is dragged out into the sunshine!"(P46) Although it is no great distance from the prison-door to the market-place, to Hester Prynne, a prisoner, it is reckoned a journey of some length. However haughty she is,"she perchance underwent an agony from every footstep of those that thronged to see her, as if her heart has been flung into the street for them all to spurn and trample upon."mail.gif" align=middle border=0> ter Prynne feels as if she belongs to it. Every gesture, every word, and even the silence of those with whom she comes in contact, inplies and often expresses, that she is banished. The token---the sacrlet "A" never grows callous; it seems, on the contray, to grow even more sensitive with daily torture.
All these sufferings intend to remind Hester that, as a sinner, a betrayer of God, she must be tortured until she receives forgiveness from God. All that she can do is bear and bear, and atone for her sin.  
Sin is unpleasant and painful. No one in the world wants to suffer. All of us hope that we can stop every kind of suffering some day. That is not just a wish that is far away and can't be achieved. God's love is universal and lenient. God has a soft heart, which doesn't want to see people who are tortured. “Praise the LORD, O my soul, and forget not all his benefits--
who forgives all your sins…”(Plasm103,2,3)
Sinners can receive salvation from their sufferings definitely. “'The LORD is slow to anger, abounding in love and forgiving sin and rebellion.”(Numbers 14:18) The assurance of salvation is born of confidence in Christ. He has said: “Him that cometh to me I will in no wise cast out.” God save people out of His love --- His universal love. To doubt salvation is not modest or commendable: it is the sin of distrusting God, or making Him untrue. “But if a wicked man turns away from all the sins he has committed and keeps all my decrees and does what is just and right, he will surely live; he will not die. None of the offences he has committed will be remembered against him. Because of the righteous things he has done, he will live. Do I take any pleasure in the death of the wicked? declares the Sovereign LORD. Rather, am I not pleased when they turn from their ways and live?” (Ezekiel 18:21-23) However, salvation is not offered to those who want to be good or religious, nor is it guaranteed to those who hope God will Himself be lenient and gracious in the end. If salvation depends in any degree on personal goodness, there could not be even one saved person in the world. Salvation is offered to all helpless sinners who are willing to believe God. Without faith, it is impossible to please God. This is evident in The Bible:
“Blessed is she who has believed that what the Lord has said to her will be accomplished!”(Luke1, 45)
“So keep up your courage, men, for I have faith in God that it will happen just as he told me.”(Acts, 27,25)
“(Abraham)… was strengthened in his faith… being fully persuaded that God had power to do what he had promised.”(Romans4, 20,21)
The above three quotations from The Bible help us to realize that faith depends on what God has said or promised to do. Even an honest man tries to fulfill his  although she has made a terrible mistake, she doesn't separate herself from God consequently. Instead, she accepts all the punishment society forces upon her and behaves gently and kindly. What she acts is just a good evidence as her atonement for her sin. However, the most important reason of her salvation is that she has firm beliefs. Her immovable faith leads to her resurrection in the end. Faith is the prerequisite of God's offer of forgiveness to Hester. Thus, we conclude that Hester Prynne is finally accepted by society and receives God's forgiveness. She is resurrected.

  
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